So what exactly are Amphetamines?
What is Methamphetamine?
How does it affect our mind and body?
Why is it the most impure illegal drug in the UK?
What are the effects of this harmfull drug?
What are the experts saying?
Well we all know it is a drug and the Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs, now the organisation called Drug Science says –
‘People cannot use drugs without a risk of being harmed.’ (1)
For the record Speed and Amphetamine in this article are exactly the same.
Concise Oxford English Dictionary tells us that Amphetamines is a synthetic mood-altering drug, used illegally as a stimulant. (2)
Here are some street names for Amphetamines
Let’s see what FRANK has to say, which is a UK Government funded website (3)
Speed is the street name for the class B drug Amphetamine Sulphate.
Sometimes speed is used to refer to other types of amphetamines.
Speed is a stimulant and people take ‘speed’ to keep them awake, energised and alert.
Class B drug and that means possession is 5 years in prison and an unlimited fine.
If possession is with intent to supply or supply – it is 14 years in prison and an unlimited fine.
It can be snorted, swallowed (ingested), injected or smoked.
As a stimulant it increases your heartbeat and rate of breathing. As well as making people feel alert and energised, Speed creates sensations of confidence, a false sense of well-being, increased stamina and reduces any desire to eat and sleep. Users can become tense and anxious. (4)
Speed is often used as a party drug as it keeps you going.
It is a very impure drug and that means most of the powder in a wrap only contains 5-15% amphetamine sulphate. The dealer can make more profit if the Speed is cut with caffeine, starch powder, laxatives, talcum powder, paracetamol, ephedrine and sugars like glucose.
The Come Down –
Speed forces the body to produce extra energy. This is on a ‘loan basis’. When the body starts to replace the ‘borrowed’ energy the user can be left feeling tired, depressed and hungry. It is easy to get into a cycle of using amphetamines and then needing to use more just to get everyday tasks done.
Amphetamine Psychosis can also happen.
Methamphetamine is part of the amphetamine family of stimulant drugs. (5)
Other names for this dangerous drug are
Who comes up with these names and what is this Crazy Medicine?
Methamphetamine is a synthetic (man-made) chemical and comes in the form of white crystalline powder that is odourless, bitter tasting and dissolves easily in water or alcohol. It can be snorted, smoked or injected and some take it orally. (6)
Methamphetamine is a Class A drug and that means it is serious stuff, so possession means 7 years in prison and an unlimited fine. Possession with intent to supply or supply is Life in prison and an unlimited fine. (5)
Before we go any further can we just stop and re-read this.
LIFE IN PRISON for the possession of this drug if you supply or intend to supply.
What on earth is this telling us about a powerfull street drug?
Have we interviewed the dealers to see if they care about getting caught?
Are we aware of why this is classified as a Class A drug?
Why do we know so little about this ‘crazy medicine’?
Why are the media not informing us about the real harm of this drug?
Why is a prison sentence or unlimited fine not really stopping suppliers?
Why is there such a demand for a drug that is doing serious damage?
Methamphetamine is commonly manufactured in illegal hidden laboratories, mixing various forms of amphetamine or other chemicals to boost its potency. Common pills for cold remedies are often used as the basis for production of the drug. Ingredients are extracted from those pills and to increase strength it is combined with chemicals such as battery acid, drain cleaner, lantern fuel and antifreeze. (6)
Hello – can we just stop right here and re-read the above.
This is a recipe for death and there is no getting away from that fact.
We know that if we drank battery acid or anti-freeze it would kill us.
Methamphetamine: Fact vs Fiction and Lessons from the Crack Hysteria –
If you do a quick search on the internet you can find plenty of “How to make meth” recipes. According to these recipes you can easily make it from a few common products and the most important one is over the counter cold medication – pseudoephedrine. (7)
This means that it is more readily available on the illicit market and more accessible to the poor, the marginalised and those wishing to avoid the medical establishment.
The production of homemade methamphetamine (known as Pervitin) in the Czech Republic was perfected in a simple process using an ephedrine-containing cough medicine available over the counter and this technique spread very quickly. (7)
Pervitin use and production are extensive in the Czech Republic today (Mravcik et al. 2011).
Did you know –
If a drug is less pure, containing only 5-10 percent of the desired compound, for example, then there is less of it to waste. Moreover, taking a drug by mouth can lead to only 10-20 percent bioavailability of the ingested dose. (7)
Bioavailability means the proportion of the dose of the drug that reaches its target – in this case the brain.
One of the reasons that the bioavailability of a drug is lower following oral administration is simply because enzymes in the liver specialise in breaking down chemicals, including methamphetamine in order to protect the brain and to make any poisons we eat less destructive.
This process is called first-pass metabolism.
It can significantly reduce the effective dose of a drug taken orally.
First-pass metabolism can be circumvented by injecting or smoking a drug.
Smoking and injecting produce more potent effects, the likelihood of harmfull consequences is increased with these methods.
Czech service providers hope that this method will encourage some people who use methamphetamines to shift from injection to oral use. (Mravcik et al. 2011).
Taking a drug by mouth is usually safer, as the stomach can be pumped in case of an overdose.
Also some of the drug will be broken down before reaching the brain.
OK – let’s just stop here and re-read this.
Have we lost the plot and is any of this making sense?
Is there a clue here about how intelligent our body is?
The fact that the liver immediately kicks in and does what it can to protect the brain?
The fact that it recognises poison entering the body and takes action?
Who thought of smoking and injecting to fool the body?
How serious is it that the bioavailability is more important to us than our own health?
Why is it that we need to alter the state of our brain or call it ‘mind’?
Why do we need to find a way round so we get the hit at the cost of our body?
Amphetamines reliably reduce fatigue and offset performance decrements, some may repeatedly take these drugs to lessen problems associated with sleep loss. This is less than an ideal approach. (Hart et al. 2014)
‘One of the most consistent effects of stimulants is the disruption of sleep, which means that repeated use could exacerbate problems related to sleep loss.’
‘Given the vital role that sleep plays in healthy functioning, regular users of amphetamine should be mindful of their sleep durations and avoid drug use near the sleep period.’ (7)
People who inject methamphetamine should be provided access to clean injection equipment.
For individuals who smoke amphetamine, harm reduction services should include access to clean pipes and plastic tips, filters, lip balm and smoking foil.
How is this going to deal with the root cause of WHY someone takes amphetamines?
Is being mindfull enough to combat our sleep issue?
Does our mind have another agenda to what our body is saying?
Why is anyone endorsing amphetamines when we know they are dangerous?
Are sterile injections going to end the deep rooted ill that creates drug dependency?
DO WE NEED TO BE ASKING OTHER QUESTIONS OUTSIDE THE BOX?
Welfare money was not enough to pay for our meth habit and support our son so we turned our rented home into a meth lab. We stored the toxic chemicals in our refrigerator not knowing that the toxins would permeate the other food in the icebox …
I did not know I was giving my son poisoned food as I was too stoned on meth to notice until 12 hours later. I was so stoned it took me two hours to figure out how to get him to the hospital five miles away. By the time I got to the emergency room my boy was pronounced dead from a lethal dose of ammonia hydroxide – one of the chemicals used to make meth. (6)
‘The first experience might involve some pleasure but from the start, methamphetamine begins to destroy the user’s life.’ (6)
Crystal Meth is short for Crystalline Methamphetamine. It is extremely powerfull and addictive. Some compare it to crack cocaine. (5)
Here are some street names for this drug
Crystal Meth comes in clear chunky crystals resembling ice and is most commonly smoked. (6)
It is used as a “club drug”, at nightclubs and rave parties.
It is a potent and dangerous chemical and as with all drugs, a poison that first acts as a stimulant but then begins to systematically destroy the body.
It is associated with serious health conditions including: aggression, memory loss, psychotic behaviour and potential heart and brain damage. (6)
This highly addictive drug burns up the body’s resources, creating a devastating dependence that can only be relieved by taking more of the drug.
Check out the video documentary called The Truth about Crystal Meth on this website, that will leave you in no doubt as to the real harm of this party drug.
All the following have been taken from the video –
‘They told me meth would help me get through my exams – they lied.’
It looks like blades of glass
It comes in different flavours and colours
There is something called Peanut Butter Crank, which actually looks like peanut butter and it smells like peanut butter. It is pure speed. It is a more pure form of crystal meth.
Crystal Meth is made out of –
Anything from underneath the hood of your car
Anything under your kitchen sink
Muriatic Acid – used to clean bricks
It is Toxic poison – and has ingredients that would kill you or send you to the hospital.
For every one pound of meth made, there are six pounds of toxic waste.
It is going to cause irreversible damage.
People snort it, smoke it, shoot it (inject) and ingest it.
People take meth whatever way they can.
People have started using meth as young as 13.
One lady said she got into it because she wanted to impress a guy.
Others said they took it for Curiosity, Boredom or as a Social thing.
“My parents and my school sent me to a rehab because I got caught smoking weed in school. Met some people there. Started hanging out with them when I got out, they introduced me to it.”
Effects mentioned include –
Instant euphoria within 10-30 seconds of smoking it.
For some people the effects can last up to 12 hours.
When you come down it is like the complete opposite.
Drug dealer told one man to just get more, when he told them how he felt the next day.
Withdrawal symptoms –
Body would ache like the worse flu ever
Skin would turn yellow
There’s no stopping when you start
Lethargic all the time
It is really hard on your body
Hair Loss, bald patches
People can’t think straight
Psychotic symptoms – paranoia
Visual hallucinations – see things crawling up your arm and then picking at your arm to get them off.
Woman spent 6 hours picking her face in front of the mirror. Left with big gashes all over her face. Also had gashes all over her arms and legs.
Woman saying she was up for 8 days without sleep and food – watching the walls move.
A man was up for 37 days on meth. Said he could see police in his backyard and he called 911. It was a hallucination and his friends left him. The police did come to his house and took him away.
Admittance to mental health hospitals.
You go crazy on it because you are tweaking.
“You are just moving like 100 miles per hour, like in your head – your thoughts, everything is just going boom boom boom, like really fast.”
“You will start projects and stop being able to finish them.
You can’t concentrate on any one thing.
Just constant motion and you are doing absolutely nothing.”
Wanting to lie in bed and “sleep my life away.”
“The only way I could function is if I did just do a shot.”
“Just needed that, wanted it and was gonna do anything to get it at that point.”
“I would not have any problem going to your house, kicking your door and robbing you for everything you had. Just to get it.”
“Makes you not care that you are wasting your life away. Makes you not care that your sister cries at night because her brother is out committing crimes and manufacturing methamphetamines.”
Short and long term memory loss
Tendonitis – inflamed, irritated or torn tendons
One woman has permanent gum damage and permanent bone loss underneath her gum line.
This is known as ‘meth mouth’
Another woman had all her large intestines removed through surgery. They left her with 1 inch. She says “doing all that battery acid and muriatic acid and all that – it eats away not only at your teeth but every bone, your eyes. It kills you”.
One man has an eroded oesophagus. Current symptoms are really bad heartburn and even drinking water can burn his throat.
“I don’t care who you are, you’re not going to be able to function better on drugs.”
“Knowing what I know now, yeah I would have definitely avoided it.”
“Becoming addicted for just one try or just one time it’s not worth it, because that one time can kill you.”
“Look at the pictures, they don’t lie, the mug shots they don’t lie.”
“There is nothing cool about it and there is nothing fun about it.
It is deceiving at first but it will just take you to a place of going nowhere.”
“A couple of nights of fun can lead to a whole lifetime of destruction.”
Why do scientists and researchers think that we the public are undiscerning?
Why do they think ‘over-blown worst-case anecdotes’ are not for the popular press?
Why are they thinking that empirical evidence is the only way?
How can we ignore any anecdotal evidence when it is staring us in the face?
Why are our governments wanting more research and proof before any real action is taken?
Is this a delay thing that does not address our worldwide drug problem?
Why is none of this making any sense?
Why are things not changing or making any real difference if these methods were truly working?
Could it be that anecdotal evidence would show us that we do not need tons of money to be spent on confirming, claiming or proving something that is staring us in the face?
Could it be that simple?
From lived experience, I can honestly say that I can easily relate to true stories, real life accounts and facts of what is going on and then use a common sense approach to bring understanding.
President George W. Bush proclaimed 30th November 2006 as National Methamphetamine Awareness Day (9)
The day is meant to educate Americans about the effects of methamphetamine abuse on communities and families. It is hoped to increase awareness and decrease the demand for methamphetamines. (10)
‘Human laboratory data are at odds with anecdotal reports and conventional wisdom’
(Hart et al. 2014)
Is there a clue here for all of us?
Do we need to go beyond beliefs and actually stick to real life facts?
In other words – things that are actually happening to us as individuals and this is the proof?
We as humans are all living sciences and is it time we are studied and by that I mean real life day in and day out to get a snap shot of what is truly going on?
Why are we ignoring real life science?
Who benefits here and at what cost to society?
Are we really evolving with our reliability on science-based evidence?
Could it be possible that there is more and we need to look at the more?
Could it be possible that a common sense approach may just work?
Human recreational drug users generally start with small amounts and increase their doses gradually as their drug use progresses.
So why are we using animals in a lab to give us results that are not really real life?
Time to get our common sense hat on and get real.
Any controlled conditions, experiments or whatever they do in a laboratory is never going to be the same as real life. Can we agree on that?
You don’t have an animal in a lab wanting to party all night.
You don’t have an animal wanting to smoke or inject to alter the state of their mind.
You don’t have an animal wanting to check out and not feel what is going on in their life.
You don’t have an animal making the choices of an amphetamine user.
You don’t have an animal with the past history that a meth user might have.
Why are carefully controlled double blind investigations not cutting it?
Why are we not buying it and is it because it simply is not the real deal?
Why do we need to control an outcome?
What is this really telling us when we have real life stories like the video in this blog?
Why is it that our world is so focused on scientific based evidence and ignoring real people who are a living science?
What if empirical evidence is only as reliable as the person observing, who let’s face it might have their own issues OR do we assume that scientists experience no problems or issues in their lives?
Hart et al. 2014 –
‘… there are real documented potential negative consequences associated with this drug. For instance, methamphetamine abuse is associated with multiple deleterious medical consequences, including paranoia mimicking full-blown psychosis (Grelotti et al. 2010) and hypertensive crisis leading to stroke (Ho et al. 2009).’ (7)
‘… methamphetamine “makes crack look like child’s play, both in terms of what it does to the body and how hard it is to get off”. (Butterfield 2004). The paper also claimed “Because users are so highly sexualized, the children are often exposed to pornography or sexual abuse, or watch their mothers prostitute themselves” (Zernike 2005).’ (7)
The Montana Meth Project on methamphetamine use indicated that the advertisement campaign had no effect when pre-existing downward trends in methamphetamine use were taken into account (Anderson 2009).
What are the potential negative consequences when we present exaggerated or misleading information about drugs to young people?
The Montana Meth project is a methamphetamine prevention project in the USA.
Some educators and health professionals have expressed concern that the types of embellishment used by the Montana Meth Project decrease credibility and relevance and this then has a knock on effect. Our youth are then more likely to reject other valuable drug-related information from ‘official sources’ even when the information provided is accurate.
The project is simply made up and the question we should be asking is –
WHY do we need scare tactics when we have enough real life anecdotal evidence like the video quoted in this blog?
The raw truth here is that there is clearly no evidence to confirm that this project is preventing drug use. However, the Meth Project remains popular with some officials and continues to use ways to bring fear but no real change. (11)
In the USA, new laws have been implemented in response to the increased negative advertising campaign waged against the drug. These laws focus on both methamphetamine and compounds used to make the drug illegally (also known as precursors).
Amphetamine tablets were available over the counter in the USA until the early 1950’s (Maxwell and Rutkowski 2008).
The Comprehensive Methamphetamine Control Act 1996, raised criminal penalties for trafficking and the production of methamphetamines. This law also restricted precursors including ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, key ingredients in over the counter cold medicines (Franco 2005)
The Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act 2005, placed further restrictions on pseudoephedrine. Pharmacists and sellers had to place them behind the counter. Buyers had to show state-issued identification and sign a log that could be used to track their purchases (Gonzales et al. 2010). Fearing that this would decrease sales, many pharmaceutical companies replaced pseudoephrine with phenylephrine, which is less effective as a nasal decongestant. (Eccles 2007)
‘Amphetamine is a class of chemical compounds that includes drugs used for both medical and recreational purposes. Of this class, d-amphetamine and methamphetamine are approved in several countries to treat a variety of disorders including attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy and obesity.’ (7)
Well we all know kids are diagnosed with ADHD, so are we prescribing a dangerous drug just so that they can focus and pay attention?
Is that the real answer here or is this a solution to help them function?
Are we addressing the real root cause of why a child has ADHD?
What happens if the use of amphetamines is stopped?
Narcolepsy in case you don’t know is a chronic sleep disorder where there is no regular normal sleep pattern.
So is amphetamine prescribed to keep them awake and alert the answer?
Are we making the sleep problems worse in the long term?
Are we using drugs to function better, but not deal with the deeper issue?
Why are we not addressing why the body needs to shut down and sleep at irregular times?
Obesity – Amphetamines are known to suppress appetite, but do we ever stop and look at the long-term effects that this drug can have on a person’s life?
‘In carefully controlled laboratory studies of human research participants, d-amphetamine and methamphetamine produce nearly identical physiological and behavioural effects (Martin et al. 1971; Sevak et al. 2009 Kirkpatrick et al. 2012) They both increase blood pressure, pulse, euphoria and desire to take the drug in a dose-dependent manner.
Essentially, they are the same drug.’ (7)
In New Zealand and the United Kingdom – d-amphetamine remains available for medical purposes but any use of methamphetamine which includes medical use is banned.
NOTE – d-amphetamine and methamphetamine are essentially the same drug.
(Kirkpatrick et al. 2012).
HELLO – is this making any sense?
We have two different classes of drugs and yet we are told it is essentially the same.
People seek stimulants for personal reasons, which could be work related or recreational. So it will be of no surprise that methamphetamine is the most frequently abused amphetamine.
‘Multiple lines of evidence demonstrate that amphetamine causes a release of monoamines from brain cells.’ The effects on behaviour are ‘elevating mood, increasing alertness and vigilance, while decreasing tiredness and sleepiness. (e.g., Hart et.al. 2003, 2005).’ (7)
These effects can be beneficial for individuals required to work extended hours or workers who have to perform at the circadian nadir of alertness.
‘Undoubtedly, this is the reason that several nations’ militaries have used (and continue to use) amphetamine since World War II (Caldwell and Caldwell 2005). The drug helps soldiers fight better and longer. The performance enhancing benefits are widely recognised by students and professionals in almost every field from athletics to zoology.’ (7)
Now this is a big fat HELLO
So here we have a mind altering drug that is dangerous and yet it is used by students and professionals to push past their natural state.
At what cost is this to our human body?
Why are we not all well informed about this harmfull drug?
Why are we expecting our military to ‘fight better and longer’?
Why are we not stopping to consider the long term effects on our soldiers?
Why are we ignoring our body and using this drug to be more alert?
Why do we need a drug to elevate our mood?
Why do students feel they have to take this drug to perform?
Why are we choosing to suppress our body saying it is tired?
Why do our workers need to work extended hours in the first place?
Do we question what is going on in our life that requires this drug in the first place?
How can these effects be beneficial to anyone if we are being honest?
Let us put our common sense hat on for one moment.
You have a class of drugs that can have a prison sentence. This means it is serious.
We all know that every single drug alters the state of your mind.
Do we have a RESPONSIBILITY here?
So here we have a kingpin on the subject of drugs with a website that is asking for donations.
Why are we not backing this man who clearly is doing his best to educate the world about the harmful effects of drugs and the truth about how drugs actually affect us all?
Why is research limited or not available for something that is destroying lives?
Why are we not making noise to get our governments to fund this type of research?
Why are we not asking WHY questions every single day so that those in power take note?
Why is the WHY question not going on at every possible meeting or dinner table?
We have a global problem on our hands and what is obvious is there is simply not enough truth being exposed about these so-called ‘party drugs’.
Why is it that the media do not make this front-page headlines so we really get it?
Why is social media not making this their way of advertising so the world is alerted?
Why is social media not really being used to expose the Raw Truth about Drugs?
Taking any drug for any reason affects us ALL as Professor David Nutt says and there is no getting away from that.
Would it not be wise to at least stop and ask questions as to what is truly going on that we need to take amphetamines in any form?
Why is a dangerous drug like Crystal Meth being manufactured at such high risk?
Why are rave parties not stopped when we know this drug is being used?
Why are nightclub owners allowing this to continue?
Why is it that we want to stay up all night and party?
Why do we think it is ok to trash our body at the expense of a night out?
Trashing our body because we can is a choice, but what is the real damage?
If it affects the all, then that means society in the long term foots the bill? Correct?
Why are we not bothered about how this might affect our family or community?
Why do young people take these drugs to study?
Why do we need to take these drugs to keep going?
Why are we willing to dis-regard our body to such an extent?
Why is drug education not on the agenda for all our schools?
Who is accountable if some of our military are using these drugs today to ensure they perform beyond their natural state?
Do we care really?
Are we bothered about the long-term affects?
What about all the side effects of this dangerous drug?
Are we uncomfortable enough to actually do something and express our truth?
Is it all about scientific based evidence and dismissing real life anecdotal evidence?
Do we need to wait for more videos or is even one enough to show us the real harm?
Is empirical evidence our only way forward when we all have common sense?
Why are governments not uniting to end global drug abuse?
Why are our prisoners getting access to drugs?
Is it time we started to look closely at what is going on here on earth and what a mess we are in?
This drug business is out of control and this blog confirms the global scale of just one drug and let’s get real, we don’t have the accurate statistics because we can’t.
We all know people are doing dodgy stuff and no way are they going to be upfront and take part in any survey especially for government statistics.
So we have diluted facts and then we have to dig deep and look at who is funding these research projects. Then we have to ask the million dollar question –
Why is Professor David Nutt a real big wig on the subject not being funded? Is it because he is Independent and not taking sides?
Or is it because he may just expose the Truth that we are not ready for?
Next – we all know that campaigning, making noise, joining this and that may have some effect, but the Raw Truth is we are not able to control our global drug problem that is rapidly growing.
The solutions we are coming up with are not stopping anything.
So is there another way?
Have we stopped to look at the root cause of WHY anyone needs to take amphetamines?
What is actually going on that leads someone to take an artificial substance that is mind altering?
Is it time to look at our way of Living, that may be contributing to our ill choices?
Is it time we looked at the bigger picture and not just focus on the reactions of drugs?
Is it time we went deeper and looked into WHY people take drugs in the first place?
We were not born needing or wanting drugs, so what happened to us?
At what point did we take our first smoke or snort?
How are we living and what are the daily choices we are making?
What is it that we are avoiding and don’t want to deal with?
What happened to us that we don’t want to go there and admit?
They call Methamphetamine ‘crazy medicine’. It is insane and crazy tells us it is out of one’s mind or not in one’s right mind. So could this be a simple clue that holds truth?
Taking this drug confirms you are out of your mind. The body cops the ill choice you make and has to deal with the effects.
Why are we not taking RESPONSIBILITY?
We each have a responsibility to live in a way that is not harming self or others.
We also have a responsibility to get our act together and then by our living way inspire others to do the same.
We call ourselves the most intelligent species on earth and yet this blog clearly exposes this ‘so called intelligence’, is not getting to the root cause of why amphetamines harm the human body and destroys lives.
Could it be possible that there is another way and that is to get to the root cause of why we need to take drugs in the first place and until then we will never evolve from this worldwide drug issue?
(1) Drug Science
(2) Concise Oxford English Dictionary – Twelfth Edition. Oxford University Press. 2011
(3) Speed. FRANK
(4) Drug, Solvent and Alcohol Abuse Counselling – Level 4 Diploma Course.
Stonebridge Associated Colleges
(5) Methamphetamine. FRANK
(6) The Truth About Crystal Meth and Methamphetamine. Drug Free World http://f.edgesuite.net/data/www.drugfreeworld.org/files/truth-about-crystalmeth-booklet-en.pdf
(7) Hart, C.L., Csete, J., & Habibi, D. (2014). Methamphetamine: Fact Vs. Fiction and Lessons from the Crack Hysteria. Open Society Foundations.
(8) Tweaking. Urban Dictionary
(9) Proclamation 8086 – National Methamphetamine Awareness Day, 2006. November 27, 2006. The American Presidency Project
(10) National Meth Awareness Day – November 30. National Day Calendar. http://www.nationaldaycalendar.com/national-meth-awareness-day-november-30
(11) The Meth Project
(12) United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). World Drug Report. (p. 1). New York, 2015
(13) United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). World Drug Report. (p. x, xi, p.1, p.9, p.13, p.52-53). New York, 2016
(14) Nutt, D. (2014, April 28). It’s Time for a Drug Revolution. Drug Science. Retrieved August 10, 2016 from
(15) Nutt, D. (2014, April 28). The Unexpected Truth About Drugs. Drug Science. Retrieved August 10, 2016 from