Vitamins and Supplements

Dear World

Why are so many of us taking vitamins, minerals and supplements?


According to research, they are a waste of time and DO NOT WORK

By and large, the marketing of supplements is done very cleverly but it is not backed up by evidence.
Most people buying supplements are giving themselves expensive urine.
They are wasting their time and getting false reassurance of protection from these supplements, when what they need is help to look at improving their lifestyles
Professor Naveed Sattar – Metabolic Medicine, University of Glasgow (1)

The Association of UK Dieticians say – Supplements can be expensive and a lot of them have no proven benefits at all. They may claim to delay ageing, boost your metabolism or make you slimmer but in fact there is little or no evidence to back up many of these claims. (2)


What If1 we just stop here and consider what this is telling us all?
What is it about us that accepts things and avoids the questioning?

Do we like the thought of ‘doing our bit’ which is taking the vitamins but not really asking any more Questions?

Why on earth would we have clever marketing to hook us in?
Are we being Fooled or does it suit us on some level to be duped?

Joking aside, are we being told our urine gets the so called benefits?
Why do we need the false assurance of protection from supplements?

If the dieticians are telling us that we are spending a lot of money on something that has no proven benefits, would it be wise to at least take note and ponder on what is being said here?

Do we like the thought of the quick fix, want to get slim now picture in our mind that we all know is a waste of time and money?

Are we really crazy to even think pills are going to delay our ageing?

WHY do we want to avoid the Responsibility of improving our lifestyle by making sensible choices that actually support our body?

WHY are we acting like we don’t know, when in fact we do know the Truth?

Do we not want to go there if it means we might have to change some of our lifestyle choices, like Alcohol, Sugar, Smoking or Caffeine?

Do we Honestly think that we can do what we like to our body and somehow maintain it to stay well with Optimum Health, simply by popping the pills every day?

Have we ever studied all the different kinds of vitamins and minerals and what they do for the body?

Could it be possible that our body has a precision and an Intelligence that we have not quite worked out yet?

In other words, our body knows what it needs and what it does not, but we are way off the mark in noticing that fact?

What if2 this simple equation below is telling us something?


What if the sensible and wise choice would be live in a way where the body is not depleted and at the same time get the tests to find out where we need additional support, then take the vitamins and minerals?

In other words, look after the body first and foremost and then go for extra support by finding out the detail of exactly what we need.

For example, we may need some extra zinc as our diet is not giving us the amount our body requires and the blood tests confirm this. So we tune in and get the right amount and bingo we start to feel even more healthier because of the extra support.

So a quick look at what Vitamins are

Vitamins are organic compounds that are needed in small quantities to sustain life.

Most vitamins need to come from food.

This is because the human body either does not produce enough of them or it does not produce any at all.

If we do not take enough of any kind of vitamin, certain medical conditions can result. (3)

To summarise, vitamins are necessary for our normal growth and function because we cannot make them within our bodies – so we obtain them from our foods. (4)

Minerals are inorganic substances required by the body in small amounts for a variety of different functions.

Minerals are involved in the formation of bones and teeth | normal nerve function | essential constituents of body fluids and tissues | components of enzyme systems

Some minerals are needed in larger amounts
Others required in smaller quantities are known as trace minerals
Despite being required in smaller amounts, trace minerals are important

Minerals are often absorbed more efficiently by the body if supplied in foods instead of supplements.

Eating a varied diet will help ensure an adequate supply of most minerals for healthy people. (5)

Dictionary Definition of Supplements

English Oxford Living Dictionaries

A thing added to something else in order to complete or enhance it

A substance taken to remedy the deficiencies in a person’s diet (6)

Cambridge Dictionary

A medicine that contains substances that you need to stay healthy in addition to what you get in your food. (7)

Dietary supplements include vitamins | minerals | botanicals | enzymes | amino acids | other dietary ingredients
Products are taken by mouth in pill | capsule | tablet | liquid

Dietary supplements also come in forms of energy bars and drinks

2016 – vitamin was the largest ingredient segment in the dietary supplement market owing to their ability to be readily excreted by kidneys.

Botanical extracts are expected to grow fast in coming years due to the rising prominence of herbs for the prevention of physical as well as mental disorders in the human body. (9)


$106.2 billion in 2017
size of vitamin mineral and supplement market worldwide

$57.2 billion in 2007 (10)

$50 billion – vitamin supplements market revenue in 2015

$278 billion – global dietary supplements market expected by 2024

Rising obesity rates in developed economies including the U.S. and Germany as a result of fluctuating dieting patterns and hectic work style among adults is expected to prompt the spending on nutritional supplements.

Past few years – high adoption rate of Fast Foods and sedentary lifestyle in emerging economies like China and India has led to the increase in prevalence of Cardiovascular Disorders | Diabetes | Obesity

As a result, the individuals among high socio-economic and upper-middle class income groups are expected to perceive the nutraceuticals including dietary supplements as the alternatives to prescribed drugs.

Rising application of sports-related supplements for old-aged groups coupled with targeting the supplements against muscle wastage and maintenance of healthy joints is expected to have a strong impact on vitamin ingredient category in the near future. (11)

The word nutraceutical is combined from the words – nutrition and pharmaceutical.

Nutraceutical product is a food or fortified food product that supplements the diet and assists in treating or preventing disease (apart from anaemia), so provides medical benefits.

Fish oils are an example of nutraceuticals

Nutraceuticals are not tested and regulated to the extent of pharmaceutical drugs (12)

$100 billion – multivitamin tablets revenue by 2025

$12.5 billion – pregnant women segment revenue in 2015

Rise in importance of folic acid based nutraceuticals for foetal development during the initial stage of pregnancy is projected to be a key market trend. (11)


2016 – largest market for dietary supplements

Leading market for vitamin supplement products

Consumer awareness of dietary supplements benefits | extensive product availability | disposable income | increase in awareness for proactive personal healthcare – all driving the market growth


$3,291 million – revenue in vitamins and minerals revenue in 2018

2016 – one of the leading markets for dietary supplement products

Rising ageing population | increasing lifestyle disease | growing healthcare costs are significant factors driving the growth of dietary supplements in this region (9)


£457 million – sales values expected in 2021
Ageing population | rise in lifestyle related diseases | engagement among men within Vitamins, Minerals, Supplements (VMS) category

The debate over the use of VMS as part of a healthy lifestyle continues
Critics argue that individuals should get all of the nutrients they need from a healthy balanced diet.

Emerging Trends in Vitamins, Minerals and Supplements

The Purchasing Decision

Consumers purchase VMS for reasons often driven by their age

Rise in health technology – younger consumers turning to VMS to self-treat symptoms or meet certain fitness requirements.

Older generations often using VMS to avoid sickness and development of chronic health conditions.

Demographic Segmentation

Majority of products targeted at men have a clear focus on sports nutrition

Increased Accessibility to VMS a Priority 

More consumers want to buy VMS products whilst doing weekly food shopping

31% of sales for products sold in chemists

26% of sales in supermarkets 2nd largest

Increase number of online distributors offering online consultations
This is driving more consumer visits and purchasing

Fun and Innovative Formats

New product development has led to an increase in innovative delivery formats
Powders | chews | transdermal creams | sprays

Powder based VMS products which can be added to food and drink to improve nutritional content are often perceived by consumers as more ‘natural’ and as such are a key focus area for many brands.

2016 – own label brands account for over third of sales
They remain heavily focused on launching conventional pill methods which are regularly seen to be the most convenient format.

Food and VMS

The growing convergence between food and well-being sees business pioneering innovative products meeting the dual needs of today’s health conscious consumer. This has led to more businesses launching functional food ranges, which include organic oils, butters and seeds.

Products such as cereal toppers and additives are also growing in popularity (13)

HFMA Health of the Nation Survey

30 million adults now take food supplements

10,000 adults research study

67% take supplements for general health and well-being

54% said they do not get all vitamins and minerals needed in daily diet

46% take multivitamin supplements regularly

45% taking supplements take them 5 or more times per week

26% unaware whether they get right amount vitamins, minerals through diet

17% take them for a vitamin deficiency

£400 million UK consumers spend on food supplements each year

£500 million estimated sales of food supplements by 2022 (14)


$2.4 billion – online sales for vitamins, minerals and supplements (VMS) 2017 (15)

So here we have it Dear World – a snapshot of what we are choosing to spend our bucks on and we are not sure if it actually works

This is a BIG multi billion dollar industry and we are the ones who demand it and the suppliers keep producing, simply because we want it

We cannot Blame the clever marketing that keeps us hooked in, because we know we all have a choice about anything and everything

When are we going to admit that we like to jump on the bandwagon and not discern for ourselves if something is true or not

WHY does our mind override the common sense we have inside us that tells us SOMETHING IS NOT RIGHT

Would it be wise to have a look at our Priority in life

What if we spent more time actually Focusing on what matters

What if we get Sick because of the way we are choosing to live

Is it time to ask some serious Questions about vitamins and supplements

Would it be sensible to get Real that Solutions might not actually work

Can we cut the Hot Talk we get from the ads and read articles like this

Is it time to get off the Fence and do something instead of Nothing

Would it help us as a world to get to the Truth of this huge industry

What would happen to our body if we simply just Plug in and Connect

If we just Get on with life, could we work out ourselves what our body needs

Would cutting our Fast Foods and Junk Foods and cooking proper meals help

What if there is something in these words – We Are What We Eat

What if our Stress levels stop us absorbing the vitamins and minerals

What if our lack of Sleep really affects how much nutrients we can absorb

Could it be that Simple?



(1) Matthews-King A. (2018, November 10). Omega 3 and Vitamin D Fail to Protect Against Heart Attacks or Cancer in Major Trial Which Show Supplements a ‘Waste of Time’. Independent. Retrieved November 22, 2018 from

(2) (2016, March). Supplements. The Association of UK Dietitians (BDA). Retrieved November 22, 2018 from

(3) Nordqvist, C. (2017, September 26). Vitamins: What They Are and What Do They Do? Medical News Today. Retrieved November 22, 2018 from

(4) (n.d). English Oxford Living Dictionaries. Retrieved November 22, 2018 from

(5) (n.d). Minerals and Trace Elements. British Nutrition Foundation. Retrieved November 22, 2018 from

(6) (n.d). English Oxford Living Dictionaries. Retrieved November 23, 2018 from

(7) (n.d). Cambridge Dictionary. Retrieved November 23, 2018 from

(8) (n.d). FAQs About Dietary Supplements. WebMD. Retrieved November 27, 2018 from

(9) (2018, April 12). Global Dietary Supplements Market Size Will Grow USD 220.3 Billion by 2022. Zion Market Research. Retrieved November 24, 2018 from

(10) Size of the Vitamin, Mineral and Supplement Market Worldwide from 2007 to 2017 (in Billion U.S. Dollars). Statista. Retrieved November 27, 2018 from

(11) (2018, February). Dietary Supplements Market Size Worth $278.02 Billion by 2024. Grand View Research. Retrieved November 23, 2018 from

(12) Nutraceutical Products. Retrieved November 27, 2018 from

(13) (2017, February 3). Five Emerging Trend in Vitamins, Minerals and Supplements. Grant Thornton. Retrieved November 24, 2018 from

(14) (n.d). Industry Facts. HFMA. Retrieved November 24, 2018 from

(15) (2017, July 24). Online Sales of Vitamins, Minerals, Supplements Surge 20% in $13.5 Billion U.S. Market. Nutraceuticals World. Retrieved November 25, 2018 from





Comments 12

  1. Another superb blog Simple Living Global.

    It reminds me of when I suffered from hair loss and I felt a lot of despair. The solution was to rush off and spend hours on researching what vitamins and mineral loss cause hair loss and what supplements could support hair growth.

    I spent so much money on so many different types of vitamins, minerals, supplements and hair products (which stated they were fortified with vitamins and minerals) it is crazy now that I look at it, but I was desperate for my hair to grow back. At no point did I consider the way that I was living and the way I looked after myself could be a factor.

    I reached a point where other things became more important than the hair loss, like my general health and well-being and with support I started to change my lifestyle with things like:

    Looking at the foods that I was eating and how they were affecting me
    Looking at my sleep pattern and choosing to go to bed earlier
    Stopping other activities that I became aware were unsupportive.

    Then I noticed that my hair started growing and was getting stronger and the hair loss stopped. Today I do take supplements, but it has nothing to do with my hair and wanting it to grow, but it has everything to do with the fact that I care about my body and I will do anything that I can to support it as I know that when my body is healthy and strong, I am of much more use to the world.

  2. My husband and I have been discussing this topic a lot in recent weeks.

    For him, the manipulation of the industry and our blind following are clear to see.

    We buy convenience. Pop a pill; it’s the easy route to health. We don’t have to go to the details, we can do a ‘just in case’.

    I have certainly done this in my life. I used to take a water soluble vitamin drink after a big night out or when I was burning the candle at work. Told myself I was giving something back to the body. It turned your urine bright orange – should have been obvious it was simply passing through.

    My children try it on too. They see the vitamin ‘chews’ and say ‘let’s buy them, they are good for us, we need them’. Yet you look at them and they are shining balls of vitality. The only thing they need a bit more of is quality sleep. I have no doubt parents all over the country are being sucked in to buying vitamin chews and that business is booming.

    For me, I know that context and how I am living makes a difference. If I am in tension and not resting enough, I do not get the nutrients I need from my food – something feels lacking. In winter, I tend not to get outside enough and get enough sunlight. These things register in my vitality.

    I recently had a blood test that showed with precision where I needed a bit of extra support on the nutrient front. I can then be more conscious with my food and also supplement it with specific vitamins to bring it back up.

    This process has been hugely enriching and definitely worth the extra effort.

  3. When it comes to skin and hair, beauty consumers are no longer just reaching for serums and topical creams, but also supplements and powders.

    Known as ‘nutricosmetics’, from the research I have carried out online, the aim seems to be to create wellness from the inside out. Some products are collagen based and are geared towards improving our skin quality.

    At a high price have we considered whether these products are actually worth it?

    What if there is another way that is free, but requires commitment and lifestyle changes that will provide considerable results and brings a quality greater than any of these products can?

    Are we willing to look at our sleep and what we eat for example and perhaps give up the junk food and our careless ways to improve our overall wellness?

    Are there other factors that we need to be considering now as part of our beauty regime, that go beyond any product that we can buy?

    Is there wisdom in the following articles on this website that provide the answers?

    What if we have all of the answers within to access our inner beauty?

  4. Dr. Max – Daily Mail – 19 January 2018

    Vitamin B12 shots are the new celebrity ‘quick fix’.

    Advocates of the jab (injection), which costs about £30 a go claim that it boosts energy levels. helps weight loss and depression.

    Dr. Max stated that there is absolutely no evidence to suggest that the average person with a reasonable diet needs extra B12 or will benefit in any way from the injections.

    The fact that some people claim to feel better after the jab is down to placebo effect – a person improves after a treatment simply because they have an expectation that it will make them better.

    So is this another fad?

    Is this another money making venture because as consumers we are demanding products to take away what we dislike about ourselves?

    Are we being fooled?

    Is it possible that no-thing that we can buy will make us look or feel the way we desire?

    What if true health comes from within?

    What if any external pill taken is there to support our bodies’ health but not be a substitute for the responsibility we have to take care of ourselves?

    What if our mental health, energy levels and weight have nothing to do with how much vitamin B12 we consume but has everything to do with the way that we live?

    What if the questions posed in this blog by Simple Living Global are worth pondering on?

  5. Metro News – 7 March 2019

    A GP is telling us that we do not really need multivitamins if we are eating a balanced diet.

    Many vitamins are water soluble, which means we are taking them to create expensive urine.

    Also that vitamin D is lacking for many in northern Europe which comes from skin being exposed to sunlight.

    But supplements are needed if our diet is lacking in certain foods.

    So where do we start and who do we listen to?

    This blog gives us a brief insight with some sensible questions that would benefit us all.

    As a living science, which we all are – I am speaking from real life experience.
    My diet is no way perfect but there are certain food groups I choose not to eat as I know it is no longer what my body needs.

    Last year, I was recommended to a decent, genuine and very knowledgeable registered practitioner who knew her stuff.
    Following some simple blood tests and urine test, I got a few supplements to take that just made a huge difference, that I could actually feel.

    She told me that Vitamin D was needed and her take was it was more of a hormone.

    Without going into the ins and outs I knew this was helping me internally and the adjustment was subtle but much needed.

    She also talked about bioavailability and my understanding on this was some stuff needs to be absorbed actively and quickly by the body and the products she was suggesting would do that. This was music to my ears as I felt empowered learning that not all vitamins and minerals on the market can do that.

    This meant I was not going to waste my money popping pills with no real effect other than expensive urine.

    I see it as a responsibility to find out what my body needs and not just go as I did in the past, down the convenient route of multivitamins that the whole world and its brothers were taking.

    We have a tendency of listening to others and yet we have our own internal communication with our body that could give us the exact message at the right time of what it is we need, where to go to and what to do.

    The vitamin industry is huge and we each play our part by demanding that they continue to supply, without really understanding or educating ourselves about what it is we need to support our body.

  6. Reading an article on wellness, a former medic shared how he takes 120 supplements each morning and over half that in the evenings.

    Have we ever questioned whether our bodies can take this amount of supplements or what is actually happening inside our bodies with this quantity?

    Is it possible that taking such large numbers does nothing to support our well-being?

    Is it possible that it could do great harm?

    What would lead us to feel that this amount is necessary?

    How many other things do we load our bodies with in the name of wellness?

    Have we ever questioned whether they are true?

    Have we ever questioned whether we have been fooled?

    What if there is much more to understand about vitamins and minerals?

    Are the questions posed in this blog by Simple Living Global something for us all to consider?

    Is it possible that we need to look at our lifestyle choices rather than pop more pills?

  7. Thank you for this much needed blog Simple Living Global.

    The vitamin/mineral supplement market is getting huge and of course, this will bring on those that are not reputable and are only in it to make a fast buck or two.

    The quote by the professor at the beginning of this blog that says people are giving themselves expensive urine makes a lot of sense as a biochemist once told me that most shop bought vitamin/mineral supplements are not fully absorbed by the body.

    That aside, the advertisement of these supplements is designed for those that are not taking care of themselves in the first place.

    As this blog rightly points out – TRASH THE BODY + TAKING VITAMINS = NO POINT

    If we put foods or substances into our body that we know harm us like alcohol, drugs, caffeine and sugar, then when we take the vitamin and mineral supplements, is it possible that they will have a reduced effect or even no effect on us?

    A lot of money is being spent on these supplements and a lot of money is being wasted.

    My wife had some blood tests done which highlighted areas that taking certain supplements would benefit her and the improvements she felt were huge.

    Pinpointing exactly what our body needs seems to be a much more beneficial way of using supplements to enhance our lifestyles rather that the generic shop bought supplements that potentially will have no benefit at all.

  8. JAMA Network – 21 June 2022

    84 studies reviewed
    700,000 people involved

    Vitamin and mineral supplementation was associated with little or no benefit in preventing cancer, cardiovascular disease and death.

    Beta carotene was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer and other harmful outcomes in persons at high risk of lung cancer.

  9. Insider – 7 September 2022

    Cardiologists are saying the unregulated supplement industry is causing their young patients, under age 30 to show up with heart problems.

    Common supplements like fish oil and bitter orange have been linked to heart problems.

    Poor federal regulations mean supplements formulation, purity and efficacy of these herbals and not robust literature, is causing what is becoming an issue.

    A cardiologist in California – Dr. Danielle Belardo said the most common cause of heart arrhythmia or irregular heartbeat, stems from taking herbal supplements. She is referring to patients in their 20s.

    The supplement trend is growing faster than researchers can keep up.

    $1.5 trillion – United States Wellness Industry.

    Supplement makers are not required by law to provide proof of safety or strength of their product.

    The number of Americans taking dietary supplements has exploded since the start of the pandemic. Belardo says she often sees patients with heart problems who “gravitate towards alternative and herbals and supplements.

    Supplements linked to arrhythmia in published research include:

    Ephedra and ephedrine alkaloids – these are compounds the U.S. banned in 2004 for causing arrhythmia, heart attack, stroke and death.
    Despite the ban, the compound still shows up in supplements.

    Fish oil supplements taken at a dose of 1 gram per day or more, can increase the risk for a type of irregular heart rhythm called Atrial Fibrillation, according to some clinical studies.

  10. 2023

    Grand View Research


    2022 Global Market Size
    $163.9 MILLION

    The market size is expected to grow and the primary factors driving the growth are the growing geriatric population, the shift from pharmaceuticals towards nutraceuticals due to the growing focus on preventive healthcare and the growing focus on personalized nutrition.

    Consumers are shifting focus toward self-directed care driving by the growing personal health and well-being trend.

    Unprecedented outbreak of the pandemic has largely affected North America and European countries, such as U.S., Italy, U.K., Spain, France and Germany. The dietary supplement industry is largely concentrated in these regions which in turn benefitted from the situation as the market witnessed a surge in demand for immunity-boosting supplements.

    Vitamins held a dominant position in the market in 2022, accounting for a share of 30.19% globally. This is primarily attributed to growing new multi-vitamin supplement launches, growing consumer interest in overall wellness and growing awareness of lifestyle disorders.

    Growing number of Geriatric populations in regions like North America, Europe and the Asia Pacific, post pandemic era shows great demand for immunity boosters from these users.

    Growing awareness regarding the nutritional requirements for children and infants is expected to augment the demand for dietary supplements. The growing working population and increasing per capita income in developing economies are expected to increase consumer spending on infant nutrition over the forecast period, which is expected to drive the market.

    North America is a key market for dietary supplements due to strong consumer buying power, a developed health and wellness industry and the presence of the latest self-care trends. Growing lifestyle disorders and cardiac health issues are projected to drive the demand for dietary supplements in North America.

  11. The Guardian 25 June 2023

    This article about the latest booming industry which comes from public demand – gummies.

    The marketing claims we can have thicker hair, healthier skin and stronger nails, improve our sleep and mood and ease our digestion. Really?
    No wonder the industry globally is £7.3 billion.

    Gummies have entered 3 lucrative industries at the same time – Beauty, Health and Wellness. Social media promote glossy hair and skin and nail gummies.
    Influencers cash in on the gummy boom.

    Apparently, we do not want to eat a bag of spinach if we can take 2 gummies for iron. Just like food delivery companies want us to stop faffing and do less and order food so they can keep their business delivering.

    What is interesting is the label given of “candyceuticals” because “looks matter”.
    We want the eye candy so to speak – it has to look good, appeal to us, quench our desire to want to ingest it and these bright coloured chewy sweet offerings are booming the vitamins and supplements industry.

    On the topic of “looks matter” the name of a very popular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug the masses use for pain is sold under the name of xx Express. The xx is also a name most relate to as fast pain relief. Add the extra word Express and suddenly we are in the illusion that this is somehow us going on the express fast train out of pain. It is no longer a pill or tablet but a bright red liquid capsule and the cost is £4.20 BECAUSE “looks matter” and we don’t care about the cost. The very same active ingredient in the bright red liquid is in the drug store own brand and costs 0.55pence.

    We have research and psychologists reporting on sensory marketing and it is said that the coloured stuff seems to work better than a standard white tablet. Do we ever bother to question WHY and if not, why not?
    “By explicitly selling supplements in gummy/chewy form, there is both a link to sweets, which people like and also a very strong cue that this will not taste bad” says Charles Spence – Professor of Experimental Psychology.

    As far as nutritional benefits go, it is what’s inside that counts.
    “Most gummies fail to offer any benefits beyond pills and it is hard to get a meaningful amount of anything into a gummy because of all the other stuff you have to put in there to make it taste ok, to make the mouth feel ok and to make it look cool” says Sophie Medlin – Dietician.

    “Gummies are often high in sugar, there is not a particular benefit to this” says Dr. Federica Amati – Postdoctoral Medical Scientist and Nutritionist

    To give products a ‘health halo’ manufacturers will overstate health claims like ‘low fat and low calorie’ both of which appeal to those that seemingly are health conscious.

    Trends come and go but this wellness craze shows no signs of slowing any time soon, despite health experts bemoaning the proliferation of ultra processed foods. (UPF)

    Gummies, often laden with sugar, sweeteners, glazing agents and colourings are another, more insidious form of UPF. We are being urged to read food labels more carefully and avoid lengthy lists of chemical sounding words. Why not apply the same logic to supplements?

  12. Cleveland Clinic News – 19 February 2024

    A new study discovers a link between high levels of Niacin – a common B vitamin and Heart Disease.

    Niacin was previously recommended to lower cholesterol.

    Niacin (vitamin B-3) is very common in a Western diet.

    “For decades, the United States and more than 50 nations have mandated niacin fortification in staple foods such as flour, cereals and oats to prevent disease related to nutritional deficiency.
    Yet 1 in 4 subjects in the researchers’ patient cohorts appear to be getting too much and high levels of 4PY, which appears to contribute to Cardiovascular Disease development.”
    Dr. Hazen – Chair of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Sciences at Cleveland Clinic’s Lerner Research Institute

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