Have any of us heard about Atrial Fibrillation?
Do we all know what Atrial Fibrillation actually is?
To bring more awareness, this article will present what Atrial Fibrillation is, the causes, the symptoms, description, how it is diagnosed and treatment.
The following section is from an official website –
Atrial Fibrillation Aware Week
18 – 24 November 2019
AF Association and Global AF Aware Week 2019 (GAFW) is an annual awareness week that brings attention to the most common arrhythmia (heart rhythm disorder) – Atrial Fibrillation, which affects adults of any age.
The “Detect, Protect, Correct & Perfect” campaign aims to easily detect Atrial Fibrillation with a simple 30 second pulse check, preventing Atrial Fibrillation related stroke or heart failure.
|atrial fibrillation with a simple pulse check|
|against atrial fibrillation related stroke using anti-coagulation therapy|
|the irregular rhythm with access to appropriate treatment|
|the patient care pathway (1)|
NOTE – Atrial Fibrillation is also known as AF or AFib. (2)
What is Atrial Fibrillation?
Some of us know it has something to do with our Heart1
If we live with the condition, we hope things don’t get worse.
Others may know of someone who has this irregular heartbeat.
Atrial Fibrillation is a type of irregular heartbeat and it means our Heart2 may not be pumping as well as it should. As a result, blood clots are more likely to form in our heart, increasing the risk of having a stroke.
Atrial Fibrillation is the most common heart rhythm disturbance. (3)
Our heart’s pumping action is controlled by tiny electrical messages produced by the sinus node – also known as the heart’s ‘natural pacemaker’.
Normally, the electrical messages are sent out regularly, with each message telling our heart to contract and pump blood around the body.
This would be felt as a normal, regular heartbeat or pulse.
Atrial Fibrillation happens because as well as the sinus node sending out regular electrical impulses, different places in and around the atria (the upper chambers of the heart) also produce electrical messages in an uncoordinated way.
These multiple, irregular messages make the atria quiver or twitch, which is known as fibrillation. This is felt as an irregular and sometimes fast heartbeat or pulse. (4)
To maximize the efficiency of the heart and to avoid various diseases, the upper and lower chambers of the heart need to work as a team. This does not happen during Atrial Fibrillation (2)
60 to 100 beats per minute is the normal range of our pulse when we are resting.
Heart will beat considerably more than 100 times per minute if we have Atrial Fibrillation. (3)
It could be the start of something more serious like a blood clot | stroke | heart failure | other heart-related complications.
To keep it Simple – our heart has a natural pacemaker so that tells us we did not make it or come up with it. It exists from nature, not us.
This pacemaker has a job to do and because it is natural we would feel that as normal.
However, when SOMETHING IS NOT RIGHT different messages NOT in sync or rhythm happen. When this happens multiple times, a part of our heart (atria) has a sudden jerk – that is what they call Fibrillation.
This means the whole heart cannot work as it should because of this disturbance and the heart will beat a lot faster. This could then lead to something serious like a stroke or heart failure.
1.5 million diagnosed with Atrial Fibrillation in England
(not including Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland) (1)
500,000 people have undiagnosed Atrial Fibrillation (5)
Atrial Fibrillation – Risk of a Stroke 5 times higher
What is a Stroke?
A stroke is a brain attack.
It happens when the blood supply to part of our brain is cut off.
It can be caused by a blockage in one of the blood vessels leading to the brain or by a bleed in the brain.
Blood carries essential nutrients and oxygen to our brain.
Without blood our brain cells can be damaged or die.
Why does Atrial Fibrillation Increase our Risk of Stroke?
- Atrial Fibrillation means our heart is not pumping naturally.
- The upper chambers of our heart contract and relax in an uncoordinated and irregular way due to abnormal electrical activity.
- If our heartbeat is irregular and fast, our heart may not have a chance to empty properly before filling up with blood again.
- Blood can collect inside the upper chamber of the left side of the heart and this increases the risk of blood clots forming.
- If blood clots form in our heart, there is a risk they can travel in our bloodstream towards our brain.
- If a clot blocks one of the arteries leading to the brain, it could cause a stroke or TIA – Transient Ischaemic Attack. (3)
- The symptoms of a Transient Ischaemic Attack are the same as those of a stroke but they only last for a few minutes or hours. (6)
What Causes Atrial Fibrillation?
It can also be caused by other conditions including an overactive thyroid gland, lung infections or a blood clot in the lung (pulmonary embolism).
Atrial Fibrillation is more common in older people.
The following can trigger an episode of Atrial Fibrillation:
Low levels of Alcohol consumption have been shown to increase Atrial Fibrillation. (7)
The fact that High Blood Pressure increases our chances of developing Atrial Fibrillation is telling us something.
At this point, it is well worth reading our article on this website
and considering ALL the Questions presented about why and how we end up with Hypertension – also known as High Blood Pressure.
Heart disease can also increase our chances of developing Atrial Fibrillation, but we may not know much about this subject.
We then need to ask a more general question as Atrial Fibrillation can be caused by other conditions as mentioned in the above section.
How are we living and breathing that we end up with a lung condition?
At what point in our life did we start breathing differently?
What happened when we found our breath was no longer natural?
Smoking can trigger Atrial Fibrillation.
Most of us KNOW beyond doubt that smoking is a killer and there is no getting away from that fact.
For a real deep understanding – please read our book
The Real Truth about Tobacco
If we simply apply a small dose of common sense, it would be is easy to say that if a mind altering substance enters our body, then of course our heart will feel the disturbance because suddenly a poison has got in and it’s creating and sending all sorts of messages and messing up the natural rhythm in which all our organs work together.
Please re-read this sentence incase it was missed above.
LOW LEVELS OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION HAVE BEEN SHOWN TO INCREASE ATRIAL FIBRILLATION
We can champion or argue that a tiny tipple at bedtime, the odd glass of wine or pint down the pub will have no effect on our heart OR we can begin to open up to the possibility that there may just be some truth here…
On that note – read The Real Truth about Alcohol
Then read ALL the comments on the article, which expands this complete and thorough presentation about a scientific proven poison that happens to be legal – regardless of the harm it causes to the human frame.
Alcohol in excess should not be considered cardio-protective but rather cardio-toxic
Gregory Marcus MD MAS | Professor of AF research in the UCSF School of Medicine
The complete eradication of alcohol abuse could result in more than 73,000 fewer cases of Atrial Fibrillation in the United States. (7)
Can we go back and re-read the above sentence again and again.
We are currently wasting time, money and other resources because of alcohol consumption.
If we completely stopped drinking alcohol there would be 73,000 fewer cases of Atrial Fibrillation in just one country.
ADD all other countries in our world and that tells us less healthcare costs which would reduce the financial burden on our health systems.
ADD to that ALL the other costs related to alcohol and bingo we have put an end not only to a poison, which was never created for humans, but also an end to the high rising costs of the harm in society that alcohol causes and continues to do so.
We could bring this to the next World AGM but remember that Alcohol plays a big part in the distractions we seek and desire.
Another point worth noting is that those in positions who make the decisions for the masses may not be ready to give up their own Alcohol consumption so in truth, we the individual need to make our own changes and then reflect to others what is possible.
The author of this article is one such living example.
Caffeine consumption can also increase risk for Atrial Fibrillation. (2)
Our world lives on Coffee, energy drinks and all the other things on offer which contain the legal drug known as caffeine.
Read our book – The Real Truth about Caffeine
We can no longer be complacent, ignore or pretend that the way we are choosing to live is working.
Have we ever stopped to Question WHY coffee is the 2nd highest traded commodity in the world and has remained there for a very long time?
We are consuming a drug that is legal which alters our natural state.
We have no idea how many foods and drinks now contain caffeine.
We are addicted to it and most of us don’t know what we can do.
Coming off it has consequences that we call withdrawal symptoms.
Deep down we know we need it simply to exist in life and we find Excuses or our mind is fed with thoughts that confirm it’s ok for now…
But what if it really is not OK and SOMETHING IS NOT RIGHT because our body tells us so.
That means our body communicates to us with a racy mind, highs and lows when it comes to moods or all the other side effects mentioned in our book, which is well worth reading.
Abnormalities or damage to the heart’s structure are the most common cause of Atrial Fibrillation. (2)
How serious is this that the structure of our heart can have damage because we have developed Atrial Fibrillation?
How bad do things have to get for us to pay attention to what our body is communicating to us?
When do we Stop, really stop and take a moment to pause and ask –
How on earth did it get to this point?
Our heart is constructed where ALL the parts work in a way that brings harmony, not disturbance.
Something happens and our heart starts to beat faster – WHY?
What happened, how did it happen, what was our response?
If we don’t give ourselves the space to ever stop and ask these pertinent Questions, we could end up with Atrial Fibrillation that can lead to even more serious stuff like a heart attack.
Atrial Fibrillation likely to develop with the following conditions –
Pericarditis is inflammation of the protective sac around the heart (8)
Other risk factors include advancing age (9)
With a dose of Honesty here, how many of us have one of the above or we are aware that if we continue with our current lifestyle choices, chances are we are heading there?
What if it really is up to us what road we want to go on because we are in the driving seat, so to speak?
Are we then surprised if we find out that we have Atrial Fibrillation simply because we have developed Obesity?
What if the common sense department from our body told us –
“Yep, you keep putting on weight and never checking in how the heart department is coping, then what do you expect?
You use food to push down your feelings that hurt then you stop Expressing, so this brings in extra pressure now for the heart department”
Whilst this is a serious subject and the author respects ALL that the medical world is doing, there has to be some light too, in the form of common sense, as many are able to relate in this way.
At this point, it is worth making a note of another 2 books on this website which present a thorough understanding and bring awareness to the reader about these worldwide modern day epidemics.
Symptoms of Atrial Fibrillation
- Palpitations – being aware of our heart beating fast
- Chest pain
- Fatigue (3)
- Dizziness (10)
- Confusion (2)
- Lightheadedness (9)
If you have chest pain, feel pressure in your chest or difficulty breathing. Seek medical attention immediately. (2)
Note – some people do not have any symptoms at all and Atrial Fibrillation is often only diagnosed during a medical check-up or after a stroke.
Stroke and Heart failure can be the first manifestation of Atrial Fibrillation.
Although Atrial Fibrillation can be completely asymptomatic, about two-thirds of patients experience at least intermittent symptoms, which can be disabling and markedly impair health-related quality of life.
Atrial Fibrillation related symptoms and complications, as well as underlying cardiovascular diseases, lead to unplanned hospital admissions in a substantial number of patients every year.
Inpatient Atrial Fibrillation care accounts for more than two-thirds of the annual direct costs of Atrial Fibrillation and is the major cost driver. (11)
This is worth noting – we may not even get any symptoms that we have Atrial Fibrillation, so this could be a worry for some.
But what if we do know that our heart is not feeling natural because our body feels different or our breathing is not how it used to be?
What if we could make sure we do not end up being one of those unplanned admissions in hospital by simply learning how to Plug in and Connect to our body?
For more information read our light hearted blog called PLUG IN AND CONNECT
What if learning how to stay connected to our body holds the key to empowering ourselves once again.
This means we can FEEL what is going on inside us and begin to question or seek help when we know SOMETHING IS NOT RIGHT.
Description of Atrial Fibrillation
Atrial fibrillation is usually described by how long it has lasted
Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation comes and goes – it is not there all the time.
Our heart goes back to normal rhythm without any treatment within 48 hours.
Persistent Atrial Fibrillation is where Atrial Fibrillation episodes last more than 7 days and unlikely they will stop.
Treatment may be needed to restore normal heart rhythm.
Long-standing Persistent Atrial Fibrillation means continual Atrial Fibrillation for a year or longer.
Permanent Atrial Fibrillation is diagnosed if the condition is more than one year and treatment with cardioversion has not helped.
Lone Atrial Fibrillation used to describe when doctors cannot find what is causing the Atrial Fibrillation or there are no risk factors for it. (3)
At the time of first diagnosis, some patients already have persistent Atrial Fibrillation.
Registry data showed that patients with progression from Paroxysmal to more sustained Atrial Fibrillation were more frequently admitted to hospital due to Cardiovascular cases and had more strokes. They were older patients who had a larger number of underlying comorbidities such as Hypertension, Heart Failure, Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) and previous Stroke or Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA). (11)
1 in 5 patients progress in 1 year from Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation to Persistent Atrial Fibrillation. (12)
What is Atrial Flutter?
With Atrial Flutter our upper heart chambers beat very fast but regularly.
Our heart can beat up to 150 times a minute and this causes similar symptoms to Atrial Fibrillation such as shortness of breath and fatigue.
Similar tests and treatments for Atrial Fibrillation are also used for Atrial Flutter.
Atrial Flutter – similar condition to Atrial Fibrillation and both can be at the same time. (3)
Atrial Flutter is less common than Atrial Fibrillation but shares the same symptoms, causes and complications.
One third who have Atrial Flutter also have Atrial Fibrillation. (10)
How is Atrial Fibrillation Diagnosed?
Atrial Fibrillation can sometimes be detected by a healthcare professional checking our pulse.
If the pulse feels irregular or very fast, we could have any of the following tests:
- Electrocardiogram (ECG) tests the electrical activity of our heart
Painless and takes about 10 minutes
Carried out by GP or in hospital
- Echocardiogram uses sound waves to check heart structure and how it is working
- Blood tests check for conditions that can cause Atrial Fibrillation like anaemia, overactive thyroid gland or problems with Kidney
- Chest X-ray to check if lung problem could have caused Atrial Fibrillation
- Electrocardiogram (ECG) tests the electrical activity of our heart
How is Atrial Fibrillation Treated?
Treatment to reduce the risk of stroke is to be discussed with our doctor.
If we require treatment to help our heart beat more effectively, we may be prescribed medication to regulate our heart rate or treatments to change our heart rhythm back to normal. (3)
What is the Difference between Heart Rate and Heart Rhythm?
The heart rate is the number of times the heart beats in a minute.
This is the number of times it pumps to push blood around the body.
The heart rhythm is the pattern in which the heart beats
It can be described as regular | irregular | fast | slow (13)
Regulating our Heart Rate
Atrial Fibrillation can make our heart beat too quickly and if this is the case, we will usually be offered medication to control our heart rate. This means our heart beats at a normal speed, although it may still beat irregularly.
The aim of this type of treatment is to help our heart to work more effectively.
Most medication used to regulate our heart rate will not change the rhythm back to normal.
Note – some types of medication used to control our heart rate are the same as those used to control our heart rhythm, including some types of beta blocker.
Regulating our Heart Rhythm
Antiarrhythmic drugs are prescribed to get our heart beating with a normal rhythm.
There are different types and they work in different ways.
Cardioversion treatment uses medication or a brief electrical shock (sometimes both) to help the heart return to its normal rhythm.
It is more likely to work if we have not had Atrial Fibrillation for very long and there is a risk that Atrial Fibrillation will return.
Other treatments for Atrial Fibrillation include surgical procedures such as catheter ablation where radio frequency energy is used to remove the area of the heart causing the abnormal rhythm. (3)
A pacemaker may need to be fitted after to help the heart beat regularly. (10)
Maze surgery is an option generally reserved for people who already need some type of heart surgery. Small cuts are made in the atria so that chaotic electrical signals cannot get through.
As part of the treatment – advice given is to maintain a heart-healthy diet.
Regular exercise is an important part of heart health. (2)
What is our own definition of a heart-healthy diet?
Are we simply seeking what we want to find with Google?
Are we flicking TV channels and eating at the same time while we ask ourselves – what on earth is all this heart-healthy diet stuff about?
Are we never going to give up the Fast Food diet?
Are we craving even more unhealthy foods now?
Are we going to pretend to keep to doc happy?
Are we going to ask others as that’s easy to do?
Are we going to have a go at that Stop Smoking thing?
Are we loving the comfort that our current unhealthy heart diet gives us and so we have no intention of making real changes?
Are we anywhere near ready to really begin to make small steps to change our diet, as our heart is telling us so?
Global Rising Trends of Atrial Fibrillation – Major Public Health Concern
Atrial Fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia worldwide (14)
Atrial Fibrillation is a new millennium epidemic that affects millions of lives – mostly middle-age and elderly. (12)
33.5 million individuals had Atrial Fibrillation in 2010 (14)
WHY is Atrial Fibrillation a global rising trend?
How are we living that gives rise to this illness?
WHY are we calling it a millennium epidemic?
Is it because our heart is showing us that there is something about the way we are living human life that is not natural?
What happens in early life that brings on Atrial Fibrillation in middle-age?
The prevalence is likely underestimated as a large proportion of asymptomatic individuals and those having transient symptoms remain undiagnosed. (14)
Hello – do we get what this is saying?
The figures are not accurate because we have lots of people who are not diagnosed as they do not have the symptoms of Atrial Fibrillation.
It is recognised as a global public health problem due to its significant burden of morbidity and mortality resulting from embolic stroke, congestive heart failure and acute coronary syndrome.
Atrial Fibrillation may affect functional status and impairs the quality of life.
Atrial Fibrillation has tremendous implications on the economy and public health.
Numerous studies have reported Atrial Fibrillation as a growing epidemic with an expected doubling of its prevalence by 2030.
Note – most of these studies were conducted in the western world and epidemiological studies of Atrial Fibrillation in the Asian continent are scarce. (14)
11 million people affected by Atrial Fibrillation.
866,000 new cases every year.
AF is almost as common as Stroke and Cancer in UK | France | Italy | Germany
€660 – €3,286 million
Cost of Atrial Fibrillation financial burden on the healthcare system.
70% increase expected in number of people with Atrial Fibrillation by 2030.
Europe projected to have greatest increase in Atrial Fibrillation by 2050.
With increase in patients suffering with Atrial Fibrillation, the rate of Stroke, hospitalisations and doctor visits are expected to rise.
80% of Atrial Fibrillation patients have another condition or Cardiac Disease (11)
Urgent action is needed to prevent, detect and treat Atrial Fibrillation to stop a substantial rise in disabling Strokes.
Main message of paper published on 6 June 2019 in
EP Europace – a journal of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)
Strokes due to Atrial Fibrillation are more disabling and more often fatal than strokes with other causes.
7.6 million over age 65 in the EU had Atrial Fibrillation in 2016.
Atrial Fibrillation patients over 80 have even greater risks of stroke so this shift in demography has enormous implications for the EU.
Older patients also have more comorbidities linked to Atrial Fibrillation such as heart failure and cognitive impairment.
Dr. Antonio Di Carlo – Study Author Italian Research Council, Florence, Italy
Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation is the same as for other cardiovascular conditions.
This includes not smoking, exercise, healthy diet, keeping Alcohol under moderation and controlling Blood Pressure and Diabetes. (15)
Screening for Atrial Fibrillation is important because oral anticoagulation effectively prevents strokes in these patients.
GPs should opportunistically screen for Atrial Fibrillation by performing pulse palpation during every consultation.
Patients with an irregular pulse would have an electrocardiogram (ECG) for confirmation. (15)
Atrial Fibrillation develops from structural changes to the heart due to lifestyle, other chronic conditions and non-modifiable factors. (12)
So here we have it – a confirmation that our lifestyle can develop structural changes to the heart.
We seem to be bombarded with information and news stories telling us that our lifestyle choices are a major contributory factor for illness and disease but yet we do not seem to have the movements to take any real action and make true changes.
Why is that?
Atrial Fibrillation – the Current Epidemic
Atrial Fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia diagnosed in clinical practice.
The consequences of Atrial Fibrillation have been clearly established in multiple large observational cohort studies and include increased stroke and systemic embolism rates if no oral anticoagulation is prescribed, with increased morbidity and mortality.
With the worldwide aging of the population characterized by a large influx of “baby boomers” with or without risk factors for developing Atrial Fibrillation, an epidemic is forecasted within the next 10 to 20 years.
It is clear Atrial Fibrillation is on the rise and a significant amount of health resources are invested in detecting and managing Atrial Fibrillation. (16)
A significant amount of health resources are invested to detect and then manage Atrial Fibrillation and yet we are not investing in HOW and WHY we get AF in the first place?
Imagine getting to the root cause of this illness so we no longer need to find ways to manage it.
Imagine the benefits to society as a whole if we could nail just one illness at the root and once we got that, we move on to WHY and HOW anyone gets Diabetes and so on…
We only have to study this website to know that things are getting worse.
How we are choosing to live our life is showing up with symptoms in our body and yet we continue down the ill road and accept it is as part of life.
What if2 there is another way and this is WHY Simple Living Global presented the very first blog on this website called –
What if3 every article on this monumental website is presenting another way to live human life on earth?
2.7 – 6.1 million prevalence range of Atrial Fibrillation.
12.1 million estimated rise by 2030.
750,000 hospitalisations occur each year because of Atrial Fibrillation according to the CDC.
130,000 deaths each year.
The death rate from Atrial Fibrillation as the primary or a contributing cause of death has been rising for more than two decades. (2)
$6 billion annual cost for Atrial Fibrillation
$8,705 additional medical cost for people who have Atrial Fibrillation (9)
What if we looked at this with some simple common sense and wisdom?
Not to negate the seriousness of what the medics tell us but just Another Way to consider how we are living that may contribute to whether things get better or worse.
As an observer of human life, the author has first-hand experience talking to those with this condition and it seems that anyone at any time could end up with an irregular heartbeat.
So, what if we start with these 4 words – SOMETHING IS NOT RIGHT?
Then give ourselves the time and space to reflect with Honesty about our health as it is very important, regardless of whether we have been diagnosed with a medical condition or not.
Then asking some common sense Questions that might support us.
When did the irregular heart beat start for us?
What triggered it and can we pinpoint it to something that happened?
Did we overdo it with our work or push the body way past its limits?
Did we ignore all the signs that were telling us ‘something does not feel right’ with our breathing?
Did we only find out because we had to have a medical examination for work purposes?
Could it be possible that the Atrial Fibrillation went under the radar, undiagnosed for years?
Did our heart go off track – out of sync and not beat in its natural rhythm – because our heart was communicating a message at that moment and saying “listen up, time to pay attention, things are not right’?
What if our Heart2 does feel even the tiniest disturbance because it is designed to be super sensitive?
Have we grown up not allowing ourselves to feel what our heart is communicating?
Have we somewhere along the line learnt how to ignore our heart’s messages?
Have we got into the habit of always ignoring our body and not paying much attention to it?
Back to Atrial Fibrillation – what if we made the choice to put our hand on our heart and ask what is going on?
What if we did this every day in a truly caring way without any demand or expectation?
What if we considered how are we working, sleeping, resting and exercising?
Can we feel where we might be adding to the heart staying ‘off track’?
In other words, what lifestyle choices are adding to the Atrial Fibrillation and what could we do in a very practical way to perhaps support this out of rhythm heart condition we have ended up with?
What if our reactions really affect our heart and harm it in some way?
In other words, when we react to something, our heart instantly feels it and cannot be in its natural state.
What if living our life with tension inside our body hardens our heart?
What if our reactions are the start of Stress – read the full article
What if these daily stressors lead to poor food and drink choices?
What if this way of living means we end up taking prescribed drugs?
What if our heart department then signals to other departments, like liver, Kidney and Lungs and they all start to get complications as they were relying on Heart HQ to keep things ticking in a natural order and rhythm?
What if everything that we do in life has an affect on our heart in some way – good or not good?
What if doing something short term to get a result may not work as we cannot Fool our body, even if we think we can with our mind?
What if telling ourselves we are going to change at some date in the future because right now we are way too busy with work, this and that, may not be what our heart wants or needs?
What if taking small practical steps and asking Questions may just get our heart back on track, or at the very least not allow the condition to worsen?
What if a wise move would be to consider and ponder deeply on what this article and this website are presenting in the name of health and wellbeing?
And Finally –
Next year we have World Heart Rhythm Week in June and Simple Living Global will present information in the form of real education about the topic of Arrhythmia, to bring more awareness in a Simple and easy to read way.
World Heart Rhythm Week
1 – 7 June 2020 (5)
(1) (2019). Global AF Aware Week. www.heartrhythmalliance.org. Retrieved November 7, 2019 from
(2) (n.d). Atrial Fibrillation: Facts, Statistics, and You. Healthline. Retrieved November 9, 2019 from
(3) (2019). Atrial Fibrillation (AF) and Stroke. Stroke Association. Retrieved October 23, 2019 from
(4) (n.d). Atrial Fibrillation (AF). British Heart Foundation. Retrieved October 26, 2019 from
(5) World Heart Rhythm Week 2019. www.heartrhythmalliance.org Retrieved November 18, 2019 from
(6) (2019, August 15). Symptoms – Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA). NHS. Retrieved October 23, 2019 from
(7) Maier, S. (2017, January 2). Alcohol Abuse Increases Risk of Heart Attack, Atrial Fibrillation and Heart Failure. UCSF. Retrieved November 9, 2019 from
(8) (n.d). Pericarditis – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment. British Heart Foundation. Retrieved November 11, 2019 from
(9) (2017, August 22). Atrial Fibrillation Fact Sheet. CDC. Retrieved November 10, 2019 from
(10) (2019, April 24). Atrial Fibrillation. NHS. Retrieved October 26, 2019 from
(11) Brandes, A., Smit, M., Nguyen, B.O., Reinstra, M., & Van Gelder, I.C. (2018). Risk Factor Management in Atrial Fibrillation. Arrhythmia & Electrophysiology Review, 7(2) Retrieved November 7, 2019 from
(12) (2018). The Burden of Atrial Fibrillation. Jnjmedicaldevices.com. Retrieved November 7, 2019 from
(13) (2013). Heart Rhythms. British Heart Foundation. p.9
(14) Patel, N.J., Atti, V., Mitrani, R., Viles-Gonzalez, J. & Goldberger, J. (2018, April 17). Global Rising Trends of Atrial Fibrillation: A Major Public Health Concern. www.heart.bmj.com. Retrieved November 3, 2019 from
(15) (2019, June 6). Atrial Fibrillation Set to Affect More Than 14 Million Over 65s in the EU by 2060. European Society of Cardiology. Retrieved November 9, 2019 from
(16) Morillo, C.A., Banerjee, A., Perel, P., Wood, D., & Jouven, X. (2017, March). Atrial Fibrillation: the Current Epidemic. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Retrieved November 8, 2019 from